O H N
the close of the foregoing chapter we had an account of the first disciples
whom Jesus called, Andrew and Peter, Philip and Nathanael. These were the
first-fruits to God and to the Lamb, Rev. xiv. 4. Now, in this chapter, we
have, I. The account of the first miracle which Jesus wrought-turning water
into wine, at Cana of Galilee (ver. 1-11), and his appearing at
Capernaum, ver. 12. II. The account of the first
passover he kept at Jerusalem after he began his public ministry; his driving
the buyers and sellers out of the temple (ver. 13-17); and the sign he gave to
those who quarrelled with him for it (ver. 18-22), with an account of some
almost believers, that followed him, thereupon, for some time (ver. 23-25),
but he knew them too well to put any confidence in them.
1 And the third day there was a marriage in
Cana of Galilee; and the mother of Jesus was there: 2 And both
Jesus was called, and his disciples, to the marriage. 3 And when
they wanted wine, the mother of Jesus saith unto him, They have no wine.
4 Jesus saith unto her, Woman, what have I to do with thee? mine hour is not
yet come. 5 His mother saith unto the servants, Whatsoever he
saith unto you, do it. 6 And there were set there six
waterpots of stone, after the manner of the purifying of the Jews, containing
two or three firkins apiece. 7 Jesus saith unto them, Fill the
waterpots with water. And they filled them up to the brim. 8 And
he saith unto them, Draw out now, and bear unto the governor of the feast. And
they bare it. 9 When the ruler of the feast had tasted the
water that was made wine, and knew not whence it was: (but the servants which
drew the water knew;) the governor of the feast called the bridegroom,
10 And saith unto him, Every man at the beginning doth set forth good wine;
and when men have well drunk, then that which is worse: but thou hast
kept the good wine until now. 11 This beginning of miracles did
Jesus in Cana of Galilee, and manifested forth his glory; and his disciples
believed on him.
We have here the story of Christ's miraculous conversion of water into wine at
a marriage in Cana of Galilee. There were some few so well disposed as to
believe in Christ, and to follow him, when he did no miracle; yet it
was not likely that many should be wrought upon till he had something
wherewith to answer those that asked, What sign showest thou? He could
have wrought miracles before, could have made them the common actions of his
life and the common entertainments of his friends; but, miracles being
designed for the sacred and solemn seals of his doctrine, he began not to work
any till he began to preach his doctrine. Now observe,
I. The occasion of this miracle. Maimonides observes it to be to the honour of
Moses that all the signs he did in the wilderness he did upon necessity;
we needed food, he brought us manna, and so did Christ. Observe,
1. The time: the third day after he came into
. The evangelist keeps a journal of occurrences, for no day passed without
something extraordinary done or said. Our Master filled up his time better
than his servants do, and never lay down at night complaining, as the Roman
emperor did, that he had lost a day.
2. The place: it was at
, in the tribe of Asher (Josh. xix. 28), of which, before, it was said that he
shall yield royal dainties, Gen. xlix. 20. Christ began to work miracles
in an obscure corner of the country, remote from Jerusalem, which was the
public scene of action, to show that he sought not honour from men (ch.
v. 41), but would put honour upon the lowly. His doctrine and miracles
would not be so much opposed by the plain and honest Galileans as they would
be by the proud and prejudiced rabbies, politicians, and grandees, at
3. The occasion itself was a marriage; probably one or both of the
parties were akin to our Lord Jesus. The mother of Jesus is said to be there,
and not to be called, as Jesus and his disciples were, which intimates
that she was there as one at home. Observe the honour which Christ hereby put
upon the ordinance of marriage, that he graced the solemnity of it, not only
with his presence, but with his first miracle; because it was instituted and
blessed in innocency, because by it he would still seek a godly seed,
because it resembles the mystical union between him and his church, and
because he foresaw that in the papal kingdom, while the marriage ceremony
would be unduly dignified and advanced into a sacrament, the married
state would be unduly vilified, as inconsistent with any sacred
function. There was a marriage--gamoV,
a marriage-feast, to grace the solemnity. Marriages were usually
celebrated with festivals (Gen. xxix. 22; Judg. xiv. 10), in token of joy and
friendly respect, and for the confirming of love.
4. Christ and his mother and disciples were principal guests at this
entertainment. The mother of Jesus (that was her most honourable title)
was there; no mention being made of Joseph, we conclude him dead before
this. Jesus was called, and he came, accepted the invitation, and
feasted with them, to teach us to be respectful to our relations, and sociable
with them, though they be mean. Christ was to come in a way different from
that of John Baptist, who came neither eating nor drinking, Matt. xi.
18, 19. It is the wisdom of the prudent to study how to improve
conversation rather than how to decline it.
(1.) There was a marriage, and Jesus was called. Note, [1.] It is very
desirable, when there is a marriage, to have Jesus Christ present
at it; to have his spiritual gracious presence, to have the marriage owned and
blessed by him: the marriage is then honourable indeed; and they
that marry in the Lord (1 Cor. vii. 39) do not marry without him.
[2.] They that would have Christ with them at their marriage must invite him
by prayer; that is the messenger that must be sent to heaven for him; and he
will come: Thou shalt call, and I will answer. And he will turn the
water into wine.
(2.) The disciples also were invited, those five whom he had called ( ch.
1), for as yet he had no more; they were his family, and were invited with
him. They had thrown themselves upon his care, and they soon found that,
though he had no wealth, he had good friends. Note, [1.] Those that follow
Christ shall feast with him, they shall fare as he fares,
so he has bespoken for them (ch. xii. 26): Where I am, there
shall my servant be also. [2.] Love to Christ is testified by a love to
those that are his, for his sake; our goodness extendeth not to him,
but to the saints. Calvin observes how generous the maker of the
feast was, though he seems to have been but of small substance, to invite four
or five strangers more than he thought of, because they were followers of
Christ, which shows, saith he, that there is more of freedom, and liberality,
and true friendship, in the conversation of some meaner persons than among
many of higher rank.
II. The miracle itself. In which observe,
1. They wanted wine, v. 3. (1.) There was want at a feast;
though much was provided, yet all was spent. While we are in this world we
sometimes find ourselves in straits, even then when we think ourselves
in the fulness of our sufficiency. If always spending, perhaps
all is spent ere we are aware. (2.) There was want at a marriage feast.
Note, They who, being married, are come to care for the things of
the world must expect trouble in the flesh, and count upon
disappointment. (3.) It should seem, Christ and his disciples were the
occasion of this want, because there was more company than was expected when
the provision was made; but they who straiten themselves for Christ shall not
lose by him.
2. The mother of Jesus solicited him to assist her friends in this
strait. We are told (v. 3-5) what passed between Christ and his mother
upon this occasion.
(1.) She acquaints him with the difficulty they were in (v. 3): She
saith unto him, They have no wine. Some think that she did not expect from
him any miraculous supply (he having as yet wrought no miracle), but that she
would have him make some decent excuse to the company, and make the
best of it, to save the bridegroom's reputation, and keep him in countenance;
or (as Calvin suggests) would have him make up the want of wine with some holy
profitable discourse. But, most probably, she looked for a miracle; for she
knew he was now appearing as the great prophet, like unto Moses, who so often
seasonably supplied the wants of Israel; and, though this was his first public
miracle, perhaps he had sometimes relieved her and her husband in their low
estate. The bridegroom might have sent out for more wine, but she was for
going to the fountain-head. Note, [1.] We ought to be concerned for the wants
and straits of our friends, and not seek our own things only. [2.] In
our own and our friends' straits it is our wisdom and duty to apply ourselves
to Christ by prayer. [3.] In our addresses to Christ, we must not prescribe to
him, but humbly spread our case before him, and then refer ourselves to
him to do as he pleases.
(2.) He gave her a reprimand for it, for he saw more amiss in it than we do,
else he had not treated it thus.--Here is,
[1.] The rebuke itself: Woman, what have I to do with thee? As many as
Christ loves, he rebukes and chastens. He calls her woman, not mother.
When we begin to be assuming, we should be reminded what we are, men
and women, frail, foolish, and corrupt. The question, ti
emoi kai soi, might be read, What is that to me
and thee? What is it to us if they do want? But it is always as we render
it, What have I to do with thee? as Judges xi. 12; 2 Sam. xvi. 10; Ezra
iv. 3; Matt. viii. 29. It therefore bespeaks a resentment, yet not at all
inconsistent with the reverence and subjection which he paid to his mother,
according to the fifth commandment (Luke ii. 51); for there was a time when it
was Levi's praise that he said to his father, I have not known him,
Deut. xxxiii. 9. Now this was intended to be, First, A check to his
mother for interposing in a matter which was the act of his Godhead, which had
no dependence on her, and which she was not the mother of. Though, as man, he
was David's Son and hers; yet, as God, he was David's Lord and hers, and he
would have her know it. The greatest advancements must not make us forget
ourselves and our place, nor the familiarity to which the covenant of grace
admits us breed contempt, irreverence, or any kind or degree of presumption. Secondly,
It was an instruction to others of his relations (many of whom were present
here) that they must never expect him to have any regard to his kindred
according to the flesh, in his working miracles, or that therein he should
gratify them, who in this matter were no more to him than other people. In the
things of God we must not know faces. Thirdly, It is a standing
testimony against that idolatry which he foresaw his church would in
after-ages sink into, in giving undue honours to the virgin Mary, a crime
which the Roman catholics, as they call themselves, are notoriously guilty of,
when they call her the queen of heaven, the salvation of the world,
their mediatrix, their life and hope; not only depending
upon her merit and intercession, but beseeching her to command her Son
to do them good: Monstra te esse matrem--Show that thou art his mother.
Jussu matris impera salvatori--Lay thy maternal commands on the Saviour.
Does he not here expressly say, when a miracle was to be wrought, even in the
days of his humiliation, and his mother did but tacitly hint an intercession, Woman,
what have I to do with thee? This was plainly designed either to prevent
or aggravate such gross idolatry, such horrid blasphemy. The Son of God
is appointed our Advocate with the Father; but the mother of our Lord was
never designed to be our advocate with the Son.
[2.] The reason of this rebuke: Mine hour is not yet come. For every
thing Christ did, and that was done to him, he had his hour, the fixed
time and the fittest time, which was punctually observed. First,
"Mine hour for working miracles is not yet come." Yet
afterwards he wrought this, before the hour, because he foresaw it would
confirm the faith of his infant disciples (v. 11), which was the end of
all his miracles: so that this was an earnest of the many miracles he would
work when his hour was come. Secondly, "Mine hour of working
miracles openly is not yet come; therefore do not talk of it
thus publicly." Thirdly, "It not the hour of my
exemption from thy authority yet come, now that I have begun to act as
a prophet?" So Gregory Nyssen. Fourthly, "Mine hour for
working this miracle is not yet come." His mother moved him to
help them when the wine began to fail (so it may be read, v. 3),
but his hour was not yet come till it was quite spent, and there was a total
want; not only to prevent any suspicion of mixing some of the wine that
was left with the water, but to teach us that man's extremity is God's
opportunity to appear for the help and relief of his people. Then his hour
is come when we are reduced to the utmost strait, and know not what to do.
This encouraged those that waited for him to believe that though his hour was
not yet come it would come. Note, The delays of mercy are not to be
construed the denials of prayer. At the end it shall speak.
(3.) Notwithstanding this, she encouraged herself with expectations that he
would help her friends in this strait, for she bade the servants observe
his orders, v. 5. [1.] She took the reproof very submissively, and
did not reply to it. It is best not to deserve reproof from Christ, but next
best to be meek and quiet under it, and to count it a kindness, Ps. cxli. 5.
[2.] She kept her hope in Christ's mercy, that he would yet grant her desire.
When we come to God in Christ for any mercy, two things discourage us:--First,
Sense of our own follies and infirmities "Surely such imperfect
prayers as ours cannot speed." Secondly, Sense of our Lord's
frowns and rebukes. Afflictions are continued, deliverances delayed, and
God seems angry at our prayers. This was the case of the mother of our Lord
here, and yet she encourages herself with hope that he will at length give in
an answer of peace, to teach us to wrestle with God by faith and fervency in
prayer, even when he seems in his providence to walk contrary to us. We must against
hope believe in hope, Rom. iv. 18. [3.] She directed the servants to have
an eye to him immediately, and not to make their applications to her,
as it is probable they had done. She quits all pretensions to an influence
upon him, or intercession with him; let their souls wait only on
him, Ps. lxii. 5. [4.] She directed them punctually to observe his orders,
without disputing, or asking questions. Being conscious to herself of a fault
in prescribing to him, she cautions the servants to take heed of the
same fault, and to attend both his time and his way for supply: "Whatsoever
he saith unto you, do it, though you may think it ever so improper. If he
saith, Give the guests water, when they call for wine, do it. If he saith,
Pour out from the bottoms of the vessels that are spent, do it. He can make a
few drops of wine multiply to so many draughts." Note, Those that expect
Christ's favours must with an implicit obedience observe his orders.
The way of duty is the way to mercy; and Christ's methods must not be objected
(4.) Christ did at length miraculously supply them; for he is often better
than his word, but never worse.
[1.] The miracle itself was turning water into wine; the substance of
water acquiring a new form, and having all the accidents and qualities of
wine. Such a transformation is a miracle; but the popish transubstantiation,
the substance changed, the accidents remaining the same, is a monster. By this
Christ showed himself to be the God of nature, who maketh the earth to bring
forth wine, Ps. cix. 14, 15. The extracting of the blood of the grape every
year from the moisture of the earth is no less a work of power, though, being
according to the common law of nature, it is not such a work of wonder, as
this. The beginning of Moses's miracles was turning water into blood (Exod.
iv. 9; vii. 20), the beginning of Christ's miracles was turning water into
wine; which intimates the difference between the law of Moses and the gospel
of Christ. The curse of the law turns water into blood, common comforts into
bitterness and terror; the blessing of the gospel turns water into wine.
Christ hereby showed that his errand into the world was to heighten and
improve creature-comforts to all believers, and make them comforts indeed.
Shiloh is said to wash his garments in wine (Gen. xlix. 11), the water
for washing being turned into wine. And the gospel call is, Come ye
to the waters, and buy wine, Isa. lv. 1.
[2.] The circumstances of it magnified it and freed it from all suspicion of
cheat or collusion; for,
First, It was done in water-pots (v. 6): There were set there
six water-pots of stone. Observe, 1. For what use these water-pots were
intended: for the legal purifications from ceremonial pollutions enjoined by
the law of God, and many more by the tradition of the elders. The Jews eat
not, except they wash often (Mark vii. 3), and they used much water in
their washing, for which reason here were six large water-pots provided. It
was a saying among them, Qui multâ utitur aquâ in lavando, multas
consequetur in hoc mundo divitias--He who uses much water in washing will gain
much wealth in this world. 2. To what use Christ put them, quite different
from what they were intended for; to be the receptacles of the miraculous
wine. Thus Christ came to bring in the grace of the gospel, which is as wine,
that cheereth God and man (Judg. ix. 13), instead of the shadows of the law,
which were as water, weak and beggarly elements. These were water-pots,
that had never been used to have wine in them; and of stone, which is
not apt to retain the scent of former liquors, if ever they had had wine in
them. They contained two or three firkins apiece; two or three measures,
baths, or ephahs; the quantity is uncertain, but very considerable.
We may be sure that it was not intended to be all drank at this feast, but for
a further kindness to the new-married couple, as the multiplied oil was to the
poor widow, out of which she might pay her debt, and live of the
rest, 2 Kings iv. 7. Christ gives like himself, gives abundantly,
according to his riches in glory. It is the penman's language to say, They
contained two or three firkins, for the Holy Spirit could have ascertained
just how much; thus (as ch. vi. 19) teaching us to speak cautiously,
and not confidently, of those things of which we have not good assurance.
Secondly, The water-pots were filled up to the brim by the
servants at Christ's word, v. 7. As Moses, the servant of the Lord,
when God bade him, went to the rock, to draw water; so these servants, when
Christ bade them, went to the water, to fetch wine. Note, Since no
difficulties can be opposed to the arm of God's power, no improbabilities are
to be objected against the word of his command.
Thirdly, The miracle was wrought suddenly, and in such a manner as
greatly magnified it.
a. As soon as they had filled the water-pots, presently he said, Draw
out now (v. 8), and it was done, (a.) Without any ceremony,
in the eye of the spectators. One would have thought, as Naaman, he should
have come out, and stood, and called on the name of God, 2 Kings
v. 11. No, he sits still in his place, says not a word, but wills the
thing, and so works it. Note, Christ does great things and marvellous without
noise, works manifest changes in a hidden way. Sometimes Christ, in
working miracles, used words and signs, but it was for their sakes that
stood by, ch. xi. 42. (b.) Without any hesitation or
uncertainty in his own breast. He did not say, Draw out now, and let me
taste it, questioning whether the thing were done as he willed it or
no; but with the greatest assurance imaginable, though it was his first
miracle, he recommends it to the master of the feast first. As he
knew what he would do, so he knew what he could do, and made no
essay in his work; but all was good, very good, even in the beginning.
b. Our Lord Jesus directed the servants, (a.) To draw it out;
not to let it alone in the vessel, to be admired, but to draw it out,
to be drank. Note, [a.] Christ's works are all for use; he gives
no man a talent to be buried, but to be traded with. Has he
turned thy water into wine, given thee knowledge and grace? It is to profit
withal; and therefore draw out now. [b.] Those that would
know Christ must make trial of him, must attend upon him in the use of
ordinary means, and then may expect extraordinary influence. That which is laid
up for all that fear God is wrought for those that trust in him
(Ps. xxxi. 19), that by the exercise of faith draw out what is laid
up. (b.) To present it to the governor of the feast. Some
think that this governor of the feast was only the chief guest, that
sat at the upper end of the table; but, if so, surely our Lord Jesus should
have had that place, for he was, upon all accounts, the principal guest; but
it seems another had the uppermost room, probably one that loved it
(Matt. xxiii. 6), and chose it, Luke xiv. 7. And Christ, according to
his own rule, sat down in the lowest room; but, though he was not
treated as the Master of the feast, he kindly approved himself a friend to the
feast, and, if not its founder, yet its best benefactor. Others think that
this governor was the inspector and monitor of the feast: the same with
Plutarch's symposiarcha, whose office it was to see that each had
enough, and none did exceed, and that there were no indecencies or disorders.
Note, Feasts have need of governors, because too many, when they are at
feasts, have not the government of themselves. Some think that this governor
was the chaplain, some priest or Levite that craved a blessing and gave
thanks, and Christ would have the cup brought to him, that he might bless it,
and bless God for it; for the extraordinary tokens of Christ's presence and
power were not to supersede, or jostle out, the ordinary rules and methods of
piety and devotion.
Fourthly, The wine which was thus miraculously provided was of the best
and richest kind, which was acknowledged by the governor of the feast; and
that it was really so, and not his fancy, is certain, because he knew not
whence it was, v. 9, 10. 1. It was certain that this was wine.
The governor knew this when he drank it, though he knew not whence it was;
the servants knew whence it was, but had not yet tasted it. If the taster had
seen the drawing of it, or the drawers had had the tasting of it, something
might have been imputed to fancy; but now no room is left for suspicion. 2.
That it was the best wine. Note, Christ's works commend themselves even to
those that know not their author. The products of miracles were always the
best in their kind. This wine had a stronger body, and better
flavour, than ordinary. This the governor of the feast takes notice of to
the bridegroom, with an air of pleasantness, as uncommon. (1.) The
common method was otherwise. Good wine is brought out to the best advantage at
the beginning of a feast, when the guests have their heads clear and their
appetites fresh, and can relish it, and will commend it; but when they have
well drank, when their heads are confused, and their appetites palled,
good wine is but thrown away upon them, worse will serve then. See the vanity
of all the pleasures of sense; they soon surfeit, but never satisfy; the
longer they are enjoyed, the less pleasant they grow. (2.) This bridegroom
obliged his friends with a reserve of the best wine for the grace-cup: Thou
hast kept the good wine until now; not knowing to whom they were indebted
for this good wine, he returns the thanks of the table to the bridegroom. She
did not know that I gave her corn and wine, Hos. ii. 8. Now, [1.] Christ,
in providing thus plentifully for the guests, though he hereby allows a sober
cheerful use of wine, especially in times of rejoicing (Neh. viii. 10), yet he
does not invalidate his own caution, nor invade it, in the least, which is,
that our hearts be not at any time, no not at a marriage feast, overcharged
with surfeiting and drunkenness, Luke xxi. 34. When Christ provided so
much good wine for them that had well drunk, he intended to try
their sobriety, and to teach them how to abound, as well as how to
want. Temperance per force is a thankless virtue; but if divine
providence gives us abundance of the delights of sense, and divine grace
enables us to use them moderately, this is self-denial that is praiseworthy.
He also intended that some should be left for the confirmation of the truth of
the miracle to the faith of others. And we have reason to think that the
guests at this table were so well taught, or at least were now so well
awed by the presence of Christ, that none of them abused this wine to excess.
Theses two considerations, drawn from this story, may be sufficient at any
time to fortify us against temptations to intemperance: First, That our
meat and drink are the gifts of God's bounty to us, and we owe our
liberty to use them, and our comfort in the use of them, to the mediation of
Christ; it is therefore ungrateful and impious to abuse them. Secondly,
That, wherever we are, Christ has his eye upon us; we should eat bread
before God (Exod. xviii. 12), and then we should not feed ourselves
without fear. [2.] He has given us a specimen of the method he takes in
dealing with those that deal with him, which is, to reserve the best
for the last, and therefore they must deal upon trust. The
recompence of their services and sufferings is reserved for the other world;
it is a glory to be revealed. The pleasures of sin give their colour in
the cup, but at the last bite; but the pleasures of religion will be pleasures
III. In the conclusion of this story (v. 11) we are told, 1. That this
was the beginning of miracles which Jesus did. Many miracles had been
wrought concerning him at his birth and baptism, and he himself was the
greatest miracle of all; but this was the first that was wrought by
him. He could have wrought miracles when he disputed with the doctors, but his
hour was not come. He had power, but there was a time of the hiding of his
power. 2. That herein he manifested his glory; hereby he proved
himself to be the Son of God, and his glory to be that of the only-begotten of
the Father. He also discovered the nature and end of his office; the power of
a God, and the grace of a Saviour, appearing in all his miracles, and
particularly in this, manifested the glory of the long-expected Messiah. 3.
That his disciples believed on him. Those whom he had called (ch.
i.), who had seen no miracle, and yet followed him, now saw this, shared in
it, and had their faith strengthened by it. Note, (1.) Even the faith that is
true is at first but weak. The strongest men were once babes, so were the
strongest Christians. (2.) The manifesting of the glory of Christ is the great
confirmation of the faith of Christians.
Temple-Merchandise Punished; Christ's Death and Resurrection Foretold.
12 After this he went down to Capernaum, he,
and his mother, and his brethren, and his disciples: and they continued there
not many days. 13 And the Jews' passover was at hand, and Jesus
went up to Jerusalem, 14 And found in the temple those that sold
oxen and sheep and doves, and the changers of money sitting: 15
And when he had made a scourge of small cords, he drove them all out of the
temple, and the sheep, and the oxen; and poured out the changers' money, and
overthrew the tables; 16 And said unto them that sold doves, Take
these things hence; make not my Father's house a house of merchandise.
17 And his disciples remembered that it was written, The zeal of thine house
hath eaten me up. 18 Then answered the Jews and said unto him,
What sign showest thou unto us, seeing that thou doest these things?
19 Jesus answered and said unto them, Destroy this temple, and in three days I
will raise it up. 20 Then said the Jews, Forty and six years was
this temple in building, and wilt thou rear it up in three days?
21 But he spake of the temple of his body. 22 When therefore he
was risen from the dead, his disciples remembered that he had said this unto
them; and they believed the scripture, and the word which Jesus had said.
Here we have,
I. The short visit Christ made to Capernaum, v. 12. It was a large and
populous city, about a day's journey from Cana; it is called his own city
(Matt. ix. 1), because he made it his head-quarters in Galilee, and what
little rest he had was there. It was a place of concourse, and therefore
Christ chose it, that the fame of his doctrine and miracles might thence
spread the further. Observe,
1. The company that attended him thither: his mother, his brethren, and his
disciples. Wherever Christ went, (1.) He would not go alone, but
would take those with him who had put themselves under his guidance, that he
might instruct them, and that they might attest his miracles. (2.) He could
not go alone, but they would follow him, because they liked the sweetness
either of his doctrine or of his wine, ch. vi. 26. His mother, though
he had lately given her to understand that in the works of his ministry he
should pay no more respect to her than to any other person, yet followed him;
not to intercede with him, but to learn of him. His brethren also and
relations, who were at the marriage and were wrought upon by the miracle
there, and his disciples, who attended him wherever he went. It should
seem, people were more affected with Christ's miracles at first than they were
afterwards, when custom made them seem less strange.
2. His continuance there, which was at this time not many days,
designing now only to begin the acquaintance he would afterwards improve
there. Christ was still upon the remove, would not confine his usefulness to one
place, because many needed him. And he would teach his followers to
look upon themselves but as sojourners in this world, and his ministers
to follow their opportunities, and go where their work led them. We do not now
find Christ in the synagogues, but he privately instructed his friends, and
thus entered upon his work by degrees. It is good for young ministers
to accustom themselves to pious and edifying discourse in private, that they
may with the better preparation, and greater awe, approach their public work.
He did not stay long at Capernaum, because the passover was at hand, and he
must attend it at Jerusalem; for every thing is beautiful in its season. The
less good must give way to the greater, and all the dwellings of Jacob must
give place to the gates of Zion.
II. The passover he kept at Jerusalem; it is the first after his
baptism, and the evangelist takes notice of all the passovers he kept
henceforward, which were four in all, the fourth that at which he
suffered (three years after this), and half a year was now past since his
baptism. Christ, being made under the law, observed the passover at
Jerusalem; see Exod. xxiii. 17. Thus he taught us by his example a strict
observance of divine institutions, and a diligent attendance on religious
assemblies. He went up to Jerusalem when the passover was at hand, that
he might be there with the first. It is called the Jews' passover,
because it was peculiar to them (Christ is our Passover); now shortly
God will no longer own it for his. Christ kept the passover at Jerusalem
yearly, ever since he was twelve years old, in obedience to the law; but now
that he has entered upon his public ministry we may expect something more from
him than before; and two things we are here told he did there:--
1. He purged the temple, v. 14-17. Observe here,
(1.) The first place we find him in at Jerusalem was the temple, and,
it should seem, he did not make any public appearance till he came thither;
for his presence and preaching there were that glory of the latter house which
was to exceed the glory of the former, Hag. ii. 9. It was foretold
(Mal. iii. 1): I will send my messenger, John Baptist; he never
preached in the temple, but the Lord, whom ye seek, he shall suddenly
come to his temple, suddenly after the appearing of John Baptist; so that
this was the time, and the temple the place, when, and where, the Messiah was
to be expected.
(2.) The first work we find him at in the temple was the purging of it;
for so it was foretold there (Mal. iii. 2, 3): He shall sit as a refiner
and purify the sons of Levi. Now was come the time of reformation.
Christ came to be the great reformer; and, according to the method of the
reforming kings of Judah, he first purged out what was amiss (and that
used to be passover-work too, as in Hezekiah's time, 2 Chron. xxx. 14, 15, and
Josiah's, 2 Kings xxiii. 4, &c.), and then taught them to do well. First purge
out the old leaven, and then keep the feast. Christ's design in
coming into the world was to reform the world; and he expects that all who
come to him should reform their hearts and lives, Gen. xxxv. 2. And this he
has taught us by purging the temple. See here,
[1.] What were the corruptions that were to be purged out. He found a market
in one of the courts of the temple, that which was called the court of the
Gentiles, within the mountain of that house. There, First,
They sold oxen, and sheep, and doves, for sacrifice; we will suppose,
not for common use, but for the convenience of those who came out of the
country, and could not bring their sacrifices in kind along with them;
see Deut. xiv. 24-26. This market perhaps had been kept by the pool of
Bethesda (ch. v. 2), but was admitted into the temple by the chief
priests, for filthy lucre; for, no doubt, the rents for standing there, and
fees for searching the beasts sold there, and certifying that they were without
blemish, would be a considerable revenue to them. Great corruptions in the
church owe their rise to the love of money, 1 Tim. vi. 5, 10. Secondly,
They changed money, for the convenience of those that were to pay a
half-shekel in specie every year, by way of poll, for the service of
the tabernacle (Exod. xxx. 12), and no doubt they got by it.
[2.] What course our Lord took to purge out those corruptions. He had seen
these in the temple formerly, when he was in a private station; but never went
about to drive them out till now, when he had taken upon him the public
character of a prophet. He did not complain to the chief priests, for he knew
they countenanced those corruptions. But he himself,
First, Drove out the sheep and oxen, and those that sold them,
out of the temple. He never used force to drive any into the
temple, but only to drive those out that profaned it. He did not seize the
sheep and oxen for himself, did not distrain and impound them, though
he found them damage faissant-actual trespassers upon his Father's
ground; he only drove them out, and their owners with them. He made a scourge
of small cords, which probably they had led their sheep and oxen with,
and thrown them away upon the ground, whence Christ gathered them. Sinners
prepare the scourges with which they themselves will be driven out from the
temple of the Lord. He did not make a scourge to chastise the offenders (his
punishments are of another nature), but only to drive out the cattle; he aimed
no further than at reformation. See Rom. xiii. 3, 4; 2 Cor. x. 8.
Secondly, He poured out the changers' money, to
kerma--the small money--the Nummorum
Famulus. In pouring out the money, he showed his contempt of it; he
threw it to the ground, to the earth as it was. In overthrowing
the tables, he showed his displeasure against those that make religion a
matter of worldly gain. Money-changers in the temple are the scandal of it.
Note, In reformation, it is good to make thorough work; he drove them all
out; and not only threw out the money, but, in overturning the tables,
threw out the trade too.
Thirdly, He said to them that sold doves (sacrifices for the poor), Take
these things hence. The doves, though they took up less room, and were a
less nuisance than the oxen and sheep, yet must not be allowed there. The
sparrows and swallows were welcome, that were left to God's providence (Ps.
lxxxiv. 3), but not the doves, that were appropriated to man's profit. God's
temple must not be made a pigeon-house. But see Christ's prudence in his zeal.
When he drove out the sheep and oxen, the owners might follow them; when he
poured out the money, they might gather it up again; but, if he had turned the
doves flying, perhaps they could not have been retrieved; therefore to them
that sold doves he said, Take these things hence. Note, Discretion must
always guide and govern our zeal, that we do nothing unbecoming ourselves, or
mischievous to others.
Fourthly, He gave them a good reason for what he did: Make not my
Father's house a house of merchandise. Reason for conviction should
accompany force for correction.
a. Here is a reason why they should not profane the temple, because it
was the house of God, and not to be made a house of merchandise.
Merchandise is a good thing in the exchange, but not in the temple. This was,
(a.) to alienate that which was dedicated to the honour of God;
it was sacrilege; it was robbing God. (b.) It was to debase that
which was solemn and awful, and to make it mean. (c.) It was to disturb
and distract those services in which men ought to be most solemn, serious, and
intent. It was particularly an affront to the sons of the stranger in
their worship to be forced to herd themselves with the sheep and oxen, and to
be distracted in their worship by the noise of a market, for this market was
kept in the court of the Gentiles. (d.) It was to make the business of
religion subservient to a secular interest; for the holiness of the place must
advance the market, and promote the sale of their commodities. Those make
God's house a house of merchandise, [a.] Whose minds are filled with
cares about worldly business when they are attending on religious exercises,
as those, Amos viii. 5; Ezek. xxxiii. 31. [b.] Who perform divine
offices for filthy lucre, and sell the gifts of the Holy Ghost, Acts viii. 18.
b. Here is a reason why he was concerned to purge it, because it was
his Father's house. And, (a.) Therefore he had authority to purge
it, for he was faithful, as a Son over his own house. Heb. iii. 5, 6.
In calling God his Father, he intimates that he was the Messiah, of whom it
was said, He shall build a house for my name, and I will be his Father,
2 Sam. vii. 13, 14. (b.) Therefore he had a zeal for the purging of it:
"It is my Father's house, and therefore I cannot bear to see it
profaned, and him dishonoured." Note, If God be our Father in
heaven, and it be therefore our desire that his name may be sanctified, it
cannot but be our grief to see it polluted. Christ's purging the temple thus
may justly be reckoned among his wonderful works. Inter omnia signa quć
fecit Dominus, hoc mihi videtur esse mirabilius--Of all Christ's wonderful
works this appears to me the most wonderful.--Hieron. Considering, [a.]
That he did it without the assistance of any of his friends;
probably it had been no hard matter to have raised the mob, who had a
great veneration for the temple, against these profaners of it; but Christ
never countenanced any thing that was tumultuous or disorderly. There was one
to uphold, but his own arm did it. [b.] That he did it without
the resistance of any of his enemies, either the market-people
themselves, or the chief priests that gave them their licences, and had the posse
templi--temple force, at their command. But the corruption was too plain
to be justified; sinners' own consciences are reformers' best friends; yet
that was not all, there was a divine power put forth herein, a power over the
spirits of men; and in this non-resistance of theirs that scripture was
fulfilled (Mal. iii. 2, 3), Who shall stand when he appeareth?
Fifthly, Here is the remark which his disciples made upon it (v.
17): They remembered that it was written, The Zeal of thine house hath
eaten me up. They were somewhat surprised at first to see him to whom they
were directed as the Lamb of God in such a heat, and him whom they
believed to be the King of Israel take so little state upon him as to
do this himself; but one scripture came to their thoughts, which taught them
to reconcile this action both with the meekness of the Lamb of God and
with the majesty of the King of Israel; for David, speaking of the
Messiah, takes notice of his zeal for God's house, as so great that it
even ate him up, it made him forget himself, Ps. lxix. 9. Observe, 1.
The disciples came to understand the meaning of what Christ did, by
remembering the scriptures: They remembered now that it was written.
Note, The word of God and the works of God do mutually explain and illustrate
each other. Dark scriptures are expounded by their accomplishment in
providence, and difficult providences are made easy by comparing them with the
scriptures. See of what great use it is to the disciples of Christ to be ready
and mighty in the scriptures, and to have their memories well stored
with scripture truths, by which they will be furnished for every good work,
2. The scripture they remembered was very apposite: The zeal of thine house
hath eaten me up. David was in this a type of Christ that he was zealous
for God's house, Ps. cxxxii. 2, 3. What he did for it was with all his
might; see 1 Chron. xxix. 2. The latter part of that verse (Ps. lxix. 9)
is applied to Christ (Rom. xv. 3), as the former part of it here. All the
graces that were to be found among the Old-Testament saints were eminently in
Christ, and particularly this of zeal for the house of God, and in them, as
they were patterns to us, so they were types of him. Observe, (1.) Jesus
Christ was zealously affected to the house of God, his church: he loved it,
and was always jealous for its honour and welfare. (2.) This zeal did even eat
him up; it made him humble himself, and spend himself, and expose
himself. My zeal has consumed me, Ps. cxix. 139. Zeal for the house of
God forbids us to consult our own credit, ease, and safety, when they come in
competition with our duty and Christ's service, and sometimes carries on our
souls in our duty so far and so fast that our bodies cannot keep pace with
them, and makes us as deaf as our Master was to those who suggested, Spare
thyself. The grievances here redressed might seem but small, and such as
should have been connived at; but such was Christ's zeal that he could not
bear even those that sold and bought in the temple. Si ibi ebrios
inveniret quid faceret Dominus! (saith St. Austin.) If he had found
drunkards in the temple, how much more would he have been displeased!
2. Christ, having thus purged the temple, gave a sign to those who demanded it
to prove his authority for so doing. Observe here,
(1.) Their demand of a sign: Then answered the Jews, that is the
multitude of the people, with their leaders. Being Jews, they should rather
have stood by him, and assisted him to vindicate the honour of their temple;
but, instead of this, they objected against it. Note, Those who apply
themselves in good earnest to the work of reformation must expect to meet with
opposition. When they could object nothing against the thing itself, they
questioned his authority to do it: "What sign showest thou unto us,
to prove thyself authorized and commissioned to do these things?" It was
indeed a good work to purge the temple; but what had he to do to undertake it,
who was in no office there? They looked upon it as an act of jurisdiction, and
that he must prove himself a prophet, yea, more than a prophet. But was
not the thing itself sign enough? His ability to drive so many from their
posts, without opposition, was a proof of his authority; he that was armed
with such a divine power was surely armed with a divine commission. What
ailed these buyers and sellers, that they fled, that they were driven
back? Surely it was at the presence of the Lord (Ps. cxiv. 5, 7),
no less a presence.
(2.) Christ's answer to this demand, v. 19. He did not immediately work
a miracle to convince them, but gave them a sign in something to come,
the truth of which must appear by the event, according to Deut. xviii. 21, 22.
Now, [1.] The sign that he gives them is his own death and resurrection.
He refers them to that which would be, First, His last sign. If
they would not be convinced by what they saw and heard, let them wait.
Secondly, The great sign to prove him to be the Messiah; for
concerning him it was foretold that he should be bruised (Isa. liii. 5), cut
off (Dan. ix. 26), and yet that he should not see corruption, Ps. xvi. 10.
These things were fulfilled in the blessed Jesus, and therefore truly he
was the Son of God, and had authority in the temple, his Father's house.
[2.] He foretels his death and resurrection, not in plain terms, as he often
did to his disciples, but in figurative expressions; as afterwards, when he
gave this for a sign, he called it the sign of the prophet Jonas, so
here, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up. Thus
he spoke in parables to those who were willingly ignorant, that they might
not perceive, Matt. xiii. 13, 14. Those that will not see shall not see.
Nay, this figurative speech used here proved such a stumbling-block to
them that it was produced in evidence against him at his trial to prove him a
blasphemer. Matt. xxvi. 60, 61. Had they humbly asked him the meaning of what
he said, he would have told them, and it had been a savour of life unto life
to them, but they were resolved to cavil, and it proved a savour of death unto
death. They that would not be convinced were hardened, and the manner of
expressing this prediction occasioned the accomplishment of the prediction
itself. First, He foretels his death by the Jews' malice, in these
words, Destroy you this temple; that is, "You will destroy it, I
know you will. I will permit you to destroy it." Note, Christ, even at
the beginning of his ministry, had a clear foresight of all his sufferings at
the end of it, and yet went on cheerfully in it. It is good, at setting
out, to expect the worst. Secondly, He foretels his resurrection by
his own power: In three days I will raise it up. There were others that
were raised, but Christ raised himself, resumed his own life.
[3.] He chose to express this by destroying and re-edifying the
temple, First, Because he was now to justify himself in purging the
temple, which they had profaned; as if he had said, "You that defile one
temple will destroy another; and I will prove my authority to purge
what you have defiled by raising what you will destroy."
The profaning of the temple is the destroying of it, and its
reformation its resurrection. Secondly, Because the death of Christ was
indeed the destruction of the Jewish temple, the procuring cause of it; and
his resurrection was the raising up of another temple, the gospel church,
Zech. vi. 12. The ruins of their place and nation (ch. xi. 48)
were the riches of the world. See Amos ix. 11; Acts xv. 16.
(3.) Their cavil at this answer: "Forty and six years was this temple
in building, v. 20. Temple work was always slow work, and canst
thou make such quick work of it?" Now here, [1.] They show some
knowledge; they could tell how long the temple was in building. Dr.
Lightfoot computes that it was just forty-six years from the founding of
Zerubbabel's temple, in the second year of Cyrus, to the complete settlement
of the temple service, in the 32nd year of Artaxerxes; and the same from
Herod's beginning to build this temple, in the 18th year of his reign, to this
very time, when the Jews said that this as just forty-six years: wkodomhqh--hath
this temple been built. [2.] They show more ignorance, First, Of
the meaning of Christ's words. Note, Men often run into gross mistakes
by understanding that literally which the scripture speaks figuratively. What
abundance of mischief has been done by interpreting, This is my body,
after a corporal and carnal manner! Secondly, Of the almighty power
of Christ, as if he could do no more than another man. Had they known that
this was he who built all things in six days they would not have made
it such an absurdity that he should build a temple in three days.
(4.) A vindication of Christ's answer from their cavil. The difficulty is soon
solved by explaining the terms: He spoke of the temple of his body, v.
21. Though Christ had discovered a great respect for the temple, in purging
it, yet he will have us know that the holiness of it, which he was so jealous
for, was but typical, and leads us to the consideration of another
temple of which that was but a shadow, the substance being Christ, Heb. ix. 9;
Col. ii. 17. Some think that when he said, Destroy this temple, he
pointed to his own body, or laid his hand upon it; however, it is certain that
he spoke of the temple of his body. Note, The body of Christ is the
true temple, of which that at Jerusalem was a type. [1.] Like the temple, it
was built by immediate divine direction: "A body hast thou prepared
me," 1 Chron. xxviii. 19. [2.] Like the temple, it was a holy
house; it is called that holy thing. [3.] It was, like the temple,
the habitation of God's glory; there the eternal Word dwelt, the true
shechinah. He is Emmanuel--God with us. [4.] The temple was the place
and medium of intercourse between God and Israel: there God revealed
himself to them; there they presented themselves and their services to him.
Thus by Christ God speaks to us, and we speak to him. Worshippers looked towards
that house, 1 Kings viii. 30, 35. So we must worship God with an eye to
(5.) A reflection which the disciples made upon this, long after, inserted
here, to illustrate the story (v. 22): When he was risen from the
dead, some years after, his disciples remembered that he had said this.
We found them, v. 17, remembering what had been written before of
him, and here we find them remembering what they had heard from him.
Note, The memories of Christ's disciples should be like the treasure of the
good house-holder, furnished with things both new and old, Matt.
xiii. 52. Now observe,
[1.] When they remembered that saying: When he was risen from the
dead. It seems, they did not at this time fully understand Christ's
meaning, for they were as yet but babes in knowledge; but they laid up the
saying in their hearts, and afterwards it became both intelligible and useful.
Note, It is good to hear for the time to come, Isa. xlii. 23. The
juniors in years and profession should treasure up those truths of which at
present they do not well understand either the meaning or the use, for they
will be serviceable to them hereafter, when they come to greater proficiency.
It was said of the scholars of Pythagoras that his precepts seemed to freeze
in them till they were forty years old, and then they began to thaw; so this
saying of Christ revived in the memories of his disciples when he was risen
from the dead; and why the? First, Because then the Spirit
was poured out to bring things to their remembrance which Christ had said to
them, and to make them both easy and ready to them, ch.
xiv. 26. That very day that Christ rose form the dead he opened their
understandings, Luke xxiv. 45. Secondly, Because then this saying
of Christ was fulfilled. When the temple of his body had been destroyed
and was raised again, and that upon the third day, then they
remembered this among other words which Christ had said to this purport. Note,
It contributes much to the understanding of the scripture to observe the
fulfilling of the scripture. The event will expound the prophecy.
[2.] What use they made of it: They believed the scripture, and the word
that Jesus had said; their belief of these was confirmed and received
fresh support and vigour. They were slow of heart to believe (Luke xxiv. 25),
but they were sure. The scripture and the word of Christ
are here put together, not because they concur and exactly agree together, but
because they mutually illustrate and strengthen each other. When the disciples
saw both what they had read in the Old Testament, and what they had heard from
Christ's own mouth, fulfilled in his death and resurrection, they were the
more confirmed in their belief of both.
Success of Christ's Ministry.
23 Now when he was in Jerusalem at the passover,
in the feast day, many believed in his name, when they saw the miracles
which he did. 24 But Jesus did not commit himself unto them,
because he knew all men, 25 And needed not that any should
testify of man: for he knew what was in man.
We have here an account of the success, the poor success, of Christ's
preaching and miracles at Jerusalem, while he kept the passover there.
I. That our Lord Jesus, when he was at Jerusalem at the passover, did preach
and work miracles. People's believing on him implied that he preached;
and it is expressly said, They saw the miracles he did. He was now in
Jerusalem, the holy city, whence the word of the Lord was to go froth.
His residence was mostly in Galilee, and therefore when he was in Jerusalem
he was very busy. The time was holy time, the feast-day, time appointed
for the service of God; at the passover the Levites taught the good
knowledge of the Lord (2 Chron. xxx. 22), and Christ took that opportunity
of preaching, when the concourse of people was great, and thus he would own
and honour the divine institution of the passover.
II. That hereby many were brought to believe in his name, to
acknowledge him a teacher come from God, as Nicodemus did (ch.
iii. 2), a great prophet; and, probably, some of those who looked for
redemption in Jerusalem believed him to be the Messiah promised, so ready
were they to welcome the first appearance of that bright and morning star.
III. That yet Jesus did not commit himself unto them (v. 24): ouk
episteuen eauton autoiV--He did not trust himself
with them. It is the same word that is used for believing in him.
So that to believe in Christ is to commit ourselves to him and to his
guidance. Christ did not see cause to repose any confidence in these new
converts at Jerusalem, where he had many enemies that sought to destroy him,
either, 1. Because they were false, at least some of them, and would
betray him if they had an opportunity, or were strongly tempted to do so. He
had more disciples that he could trust among the Galileans than among the
dwellers at Jerusalem. In dangerous times and places, it is wisdom to take
heed in whom you confide; memnhso apistein--learn
to distrust. Or, 2. Because they were weak, and I would hope that
this was the worst of it; not that they were treacherous and designed
him a mischief, but, (1.) They were timorous, and wanted zeal and
courage, and might perhaps be frightened to do a wrong thing. In times of
difficulty and danger, cowards are not fit to be trusted. Or, (2.) They were tumultuous,
and wanted discretion and management. These in Jerusalem perhaps had their
expectations of the temporal reign of the Messiah more raised than
others, and, in that expectation, would be ready to give some bold strokes at
the government if Christ would have committed himself to them and put
himself at the head of them; but he would not, for his kingdom is not of this
world. We should be shy of turbulent unquiet people, as our Master here was,
though they profess to believe in Christ, as these did.
IV. That the reason why he did not commit himself to them was because
he knew them (v. 25), knew the wickedness of some and the
weakness of others. The evangelist takes this occasion to assert Christ's
omniscience. 1. He knew all men, not only their names and faces, as it
is possible for us to know many, but their nature, dispositions, affections,
designs, as we do not know any man, scarcely ourselves. He knows
all men, for his powerful hand made them all, his piercing eye sees
them all, sees into them. He knows his subtle enemies, and all their
secret projects; his false friends, and their true characters; what
they really are, whatever they pretend to be. He knows them that are truly
his, knows their integrity, and knows their infirmity too. He knows their
frame. 2. He needed not that any should testify of man. His
knowledge was not by information from others, but by his own infallible
intuition. It is the infelicity of earthly princes that they must see with
other men's eyes, and hear with other men's ears, and take things as they are
represented to them; but Christ goes purely upon his own knowledge. Angels are
his messengers, but not his spies, for his own eyes run to and fro through
the earth, 2 Chron. xvi. 9. This may comfort us in reference to Satan's
accusations, that Christ will not take men's characters from him. 3. He knew
what was in man; in particular persons, in the nature and race of man. We
know what is done by men; Christ knows what is in them, tries the
heart and the reins. This is the prerogative of that essential eternal
Word, Heb. iv. 12, 13. We invade his prerogative if we presume to judge men's
hearts. How fit is Christ to be the Saviour of men, very fit to be the
physician, who has such a perfect knowledge of the patient's state and case,
temper and distemper; knows what is in him! How fit also to be the Judge of
all! For the judgment of him who knows all men, all in men,
must needs be according to truth.
Now this is all the success of Christ's preaching and miracles at Jerusalem,
in this journey. The Lord comes to his temple, and none come to him but a
parcel of weak simple people, that he can neither have credit from nor
put confidence in; yet he shall at length see of the travail of his